Разбивка по странам (Mt)



Саудовская Аравия сократила добычу нефти в 2017 году в рамках соглашения ОПЕК.

Добыча сырой нефти оставалась стабильной в 2017 году (0,1%)

Соглашение, подписанное 30 ноября 2016 года странами ОПЕК и некоторыми крупными производителями, не входящими в ОПЕК, призванное сократить добычу нефти для укрепления мировых цен, привело к значительным сокращениям добычи в Саудовской Аравии, Кувейте, ОАЭ и Алжира, а также стабилизации производства в России. Соглашению удалось повысить мировые цены на нефть, что привело к тому, что страны, не входящие в ОПЕК, такие как США, Канада или Казахстан, и страны ОПЕК , которые были освобождены от сокращения добычи, таких как Иран или Нигерия, увеличили свое производство. Добыча нефти в Иране выросла на 1/3 между 2015 и 2017 годами, благодаря прекращению действия международных санкций.
С другой стороны, добыча сырой нефти в Китае снова снизилась до своего самого низкого уровня с 2009 года, так как низкие цены в 2016 году вызвали сокращение инвестиции в нефтяные месторождения.
Производство нефти в Латинской Америке сокращалось третий год подряд из-за падения добычи в некоторых крупных странах-производителях: добыча нефти достигла самого низкого уровня с 1980 года в Мексике и с 1990 года в Венесуэле, но она продолжала расти в Бразилии.

Мировые энергетические тренды - выпуск 2019

Based on its 2018 data for G20 countries, Enerdata analyses the trends in the world energy markets.

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India's coal demand rose by 9.1% in 2018-2019

According to the Ministry of Coal of India, coal consumption in India grew by 9.1% to 991 Mt in the 2018-2019 year (from April 2018 to March 2019). Consumption from the power sector, which accounts for 3/4 of coal consumption, rose by 6.6% to more than 760 Mt. Industrial demand also increased, especially in the cement sector (+70% to 37 Mt) and in the sponge iron industry (+2/3 to 41 Mt). Coal production reached 734 Mt, of which 607 Mt from state-run producer Coal India grew by (+7%), and the supply shortfall more than doubled to 23 Mt. Consequently, coal imports rose by 13% to 235 Mt.

Coal India targets a production level of 660 Mt in 2019-2020. The group will focus on new mines with a capacity of more than 10 Mt/year and will improve mechanisation to boost production.


UK CO2-free power exceeded thermal generation in 2019

According to the British power transmission network operator National Grid, CO2-free power generation (from nuclear, hydropower, wind, solar, and storage) accounted for 47.9% of the power mix in the United Kingdom over the January-May 2019 period, exceeding thermal power generation (from coal and gas) with 46.6%. This is a significant step in decarbonising the British power mix, which was still covered by fossil fuels at more than 75% in 2009: at that time, coal accounted for 30% of the power mix (down to 2.5% in the first five months of 2019) and wind for 1.3% (up to nearly 19% in early 2019).

The United Kingdom is heading toward zero-carbon. On top of renewable power deployment, large investments have been made in carbon capture and storage (CCS) and in building power interconnections. In 2019, nearly 65% of the electricity imported to the Great Britain was from CO2-free generation sources. By 2030, National Grid will operate at least six power interconnections (including from Norwegian dams) and 90% of electricity imports will be CO2-free.


French GHG emissions declined by 4.2% in 2018

According to the French Interprofessional Technical Center for Air Pollution Studies (CITEPA), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in France declined by 4.2% to 445 MtCO2eq (excluding Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF)), thanks to a decline in GHG emissions from the transport sector (the first since 2013, in a context of economic growth). Emissions were also lower owing to a milder winter limiting energy consumption and to a better availabilty of nuclear and hydropower plants: nuclear power generation rose by 3.7% and hydropower generation increased by 27%, while thermal power generation fell by nearly 25%. Overall, GHG emissions in France have declined by 16% compared with 1990, against a rising population (+15%) and a growing economy (+49% for GDP between 1990 and 2018).

In May 2019, the French Ministry for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition (MEIT) presented a draft law on energy and climate aimed at setting France on a zero-emissions track by 2050. This new draft law lists a set of goals including a reduction in the consumption of fossil-fuels to at least 40% by 2030 (instead of the 30% target set at the Energy Transition Act (Loi de transition énergétique, 2015)). The draft also establishes a zero-coal target by 2022 and the reduction of the share of nuclear power in the power mix to under 50% by 2035, instead of 2025. Other major targets are envisioned such as the complete elimination of the use of gasoline and diesel cars by 2040 and the renovation of all low-insulation houses within 10 years (building sector). The draft takes some of the goals set at the Energy Transition Act of 2015 such as cutting GHG emissions by 40% by 2030 (and dividing them by 4 by 2050) and increasing the share of renewables to 32% of final energy consumption by 2030.


Chinese investments in thermal power generation reached record low in 2018

According to the China Electricity Council (CEC), total investments in power generation in China declined by 3.9% in 2018 to CNY 278.7bn (US$40bn), as investments in thermal power generation contracted by 8.3% to CNY78.6bn (US$11.35bn), its lowest level since 2004: investments in coal-fired power generation dipped by 8.8% to CNY 64.4bn (US$9.3bn), to the advantage of investments in hydropower (+13% to CNY 70bn (US$10bn)). Investments declined in nuclear power generation (-1.6% to CNY 44.7bn (US$6.45bn)), but also in wind and solar: investments in wind power decreased by 5.2% to CNY 64.6bn (US$9.3bn), while those in solar power generation fell by 27% to CNY 20.7bn (US$3bn). This fall is related to Chinese policies aimed at tackling a subsidy payment shortfall and at curbing overcapacities. Investments in transmission remained stable, at around CNY 534bn (US$77bn), but rose by 6.4% in distribution to CNY 302bn (US$43.6bn).

According to the CEC, renewable development, coal consumption cut and improvements in transmission and distribution losses helped reducing CO2 emissions from the power sector by around 13.68 GtCO2 over the 2006-2018 period. The average carbon intensity would have decreased by 19% between 2005 and 2018, from around 841gCO2/kWh to 592 gCO2/kWh. In 2018, non-fossil power generation rose by 11% to more than 30% of the total power generation in China, thanks to soaring wind and solar production. Moreover, curtailment rates are improving: in 2018, the average curtailment rate for wind power was 7% (i.e. 28 TWh), down from 12% in 2017, while it stood at 3% (5.5 TWh) for solar power, compared to 5.8% in 2017.